Homogeneous (the opposite of heterogeneous) means “in the same state.”
Homogeneous catalysts are more difficult to separate from the products of a reaction.
Homogeneous catalysts work in a different way than heterogeneous catalysts. The reactants react with the catalyst to form a temporary activated complex or reaction intermediate.
For example suppose we have a reaction:
is the Product.
The catalysed reaction occurs in two steps involving the catalyst,
1.R1+C→XActivation energy E1
2. X+R2→P+CActivation energy E2 - note the catalyst is recovered